Human geography is concerned with the spatial organization of society. In the beginning, the focus was on the description of the places where people lived. More recently, economic activities receive more attention with some emphasis on the regional distribution of resources and economic activities. Environmental issues also receive attention, but the focus is more on how landscape affects people than the reverse.
Climatology is the study of the climate of a particular place. Climate has considerable impact on the quality of life and on economic issues. For example, lack of rain has a notable impact on grain growers.
Cultural geography is more humanities oriented. It looks at the representation and impact of place in art, music, and literature. Cultural geography also considers the geographical distribution of cultural activity. Demography is properly the study of human population, including change by place. Besides birth and death, migration and immigration are also important topics. Demography has a strong geographic orientation.
Economic geography examines economic resources and activities by place. Knowing where tin deposits may be found is an example. Historical geography looks at historical phenomena by place. Typically, historical geography is seen as part of history rather than geography.
Planning, whether urban or regional, may be part of human geography or may be a separate profession. Interest in planning emerged based on factors such as the municipal reform movement, concerns about building better communities and lifting them above prevailing, haphazard, and crowded conditions, and civic ideals for creating graceful coherent urban places in America.
Political geography is more than the study of borders and boundaries. A wide variety of political phenomena may be considered. In the past, political and military geography have received considerable attention in schools. Knowing the capital of the 50 states is an example of political geography. Political geography may also include the profession of planning.
Social geography is relatively recent and relates a variety of social conditions to place. Marriage, divorce, crime, poverty, education, and income by place are good examples.
A sub discipline may be created by combining almost any topic/subject with geography. For example, add geography following these terms:
A geographer can examine almost any phenomenon. For example, in librarianship a famous study on the “geography of reading” examined the placement of libraries and book stores.
Physical geography evolved from geology and other natural sciences. In fact, this is more of a natural science rather than a social one. Physical geography is concerned with environmental variables:
* Landforms, including rock type and arrangement, relief and drainage
* Fauna and flora
* Wild vegetation
* Relationships between these variables.